Amazon ElastiCache embodies much of what makes fast data a reality for customers looking to process high volume data at incredible rates, faster than traditional databases can manage. Developers love the performance, simplicity, and in-memory capabilities of Redis, making it among the most popular NoSQL key-value stores. Redis's microsecond latency has made it a de facto choice for caching. Its support for advanced data structures (for example, lists, sets, and sorted sets) also enables a variety of in-memory use cases such as leaderboards, in-memory analytics, messaging, and more.
Four years ago, as part of our AWS fast data journey, we introduced Amazon ElastiCache for Redis, a fully managed, in-memory data store that operates at microsecond latency. Since then, we have added support for Redis clusters, enabling customers to run faster and more scalable workloads. ElastiCache for Redis cluster configuration supports up to 15 shards and enables customers to run Redis workloads with up to 6.1 TB of in-memory capacity in a single cluster. While Redis cluster configuration enabled larger deployments with high performance, resizing the cluster required backup and restore, which meant taking the cluster offline.
Earlier this month, we announced online cluster resizing within ElastiCache. ElastiCache for Redis now provides the ability to add and remove shards from a running cluster. You can now dynamically scale out and even scale in your Redis cluster workloads to adapt to changes in demand. ElastiCache resizes the cluster by adding or removing shards and redistributing keys uniformly across the new shard configuration, all while the cluster continues to stay online and serve requests. No application changes are needed.
Scaling with elasticity
Having closely watched ElastiCache evolve over the years, I am delighted to see ElastiCache being used by thousands of customers – including the likes of Airbnb, Hulu, McDonalds, Adobe, Expedia, Hudl, Grab, Duolingo, PBS, HERE, and Ubisoft. ElastiCache for Redis delivers predictable microsecond latencies and is super easy to use. Our customers are using ElastiCache for Redis in their most demanding applications, supporting millions of users. Whether it is gaming, adtech, travel, or retail—speed wins, it's simple.
As the use cases for Redis continue to grow, customers have demanded more flexibility in scaling their workloads dynamically, while continuing to be highly available and serving incoming traffic. To give you some examples, I've been talking to a few gaming companies lately, and their conversations are about the need for speed and flexibility in scaling, both in and out. They deal with high variability in workloads based on game adoption or seasonality, such as upcoming holidays. If a game leaderboard surges because of a new game title, and tons of players flock to play the game, gaming platforms want to resize the cluster online to handle the bigger load. But as demand decreases, they should just as easily be able to scale-in the environment to optimize costs, all while staying online and serving incoming requests.
Our retail customers have shared similar challenges about managing workload surges and declines driven by big sale events. Some customers have also shared their experiences of trying to self-manage Redis workloads and implement online cluster resizing, for workloads where offline cluster resizing was not an option. While open source Redis comes with primitives to help reshard a cluster, they are inadequate. In addition to the cost of self-management, customers have to deal with failures during cluster resizing. Failures can leave the cluster in an irrecoverable state, potentially causing data loss and extended downtime until the cluster can be fixed manually.
At Amazon, we have always focused on innovating on behalf of the customer. With online cluster resizing, our goal was to design a fully managed experience for cluster resharding, which would support both scale-out and scale-in and retain open source compatibility. It has been an exciting journey—one of thought leadership and innovation—that has enabled us to bring the promise of more elasticity and the flexibility to resize workloads, while retaining availability, consistency, and performance.
Under the hood
In a Redis cluster, the key space is split into slots (16,384 slots) and slots are distributed across shards. When a cluster is resharded, these slots need to be redistributed. Apps using Redis are able to pick this up, as Redis clients can auto-discover and keep up-to-date with changes in slot assignment. However, the slots must be moved manually on the server side. Cluster resizing is a complex problem as it involves changing the number of shards and migrating data, while serving read and write requests on the same dataset. A resharding operation to scale out involves adding shards, creating a plan for redistributing slots, migrating the slots, and finally transferring slot ownership across shards, after the slots are migrated.
Atomic slot migration
Online cluster resizing in ElastiCache uses atomic slot migration instead of the atomic key migration that open source Redis comes with. When a key is migrated to the target shard, ElastiCache maintains a copy of the key at the source shard, which retains ownership of the key until the entire slot and all its keys are migrated. This has several benefits:
- Because all the keys in the slot continue to be owned by the source shard, the dataset is never in a slot-split situation. This makes it easy to support operations such as multi-key commands, transactions, and LUA scripts, thereby providing full API coverage while cluster resharding is in progress.
- While slot migration is in progress, the source shard continues to support requests related to keys that have been migrated. This minimizes the time window requiring client redirection, improving latency during migration operation.
- Key ownership stays with the source shard, so replicas in the source shard have up-to-date information on the keys. If there is a failover, the replicas can continue serving commands with the latest key status and there is no data loss.
- The system is more robust. Any errors such as target out of memory, which may halt migration, are easy to recover from, because the source shard has full ownership of the key.
We have also made other enhancements along the way. One important addition is the use of multi-threaded operations at the source shard. Slot migration at the source shard is executed in parallel as a separate thread from the main I/O thread. As a result, key migration no longer blocks I/O on the source, ensuring no availability impact. Additionally, to maintain data consistency, all data mutations during the migration operation are asynchronously replicated to the target shard.
Online cluster resizing is a fantastic addition for our ElastiCache for Redis customers. You can resize your ElastiCache for Redis 3.2.10 cluster to scale- out or scale in, without any application side changes. For more information about getting started with clustered Redis and trying to reshard a cluster, see Online Cluster Resizing.
Many of our customers share my excitement:
Duolingo is the free, science-based, language education platform that has organically become the most popular way to learn languages online. With over 200 million users and seven billion language exercises completed each month, the company's mission is to make education free, fun, and accessible to all. "Amazon ElastiCache has played an absolutely critical part in our infrastructure from the beginning," said Max Blaze, Staff Operations Engineer at Duolingo. "As we have grown, we have pushed the limits of what is possible with single-shard clusters. ElastiCache for Redis online resharding will allow us to easily scale our Redis clusters horizontally as we grow, greatly simplifying the management of our many Redis clusters, empowering us to scale quickly while also reducing cost across our caching layers, and continue to grow with minimal changes to our current services.
Dream11 , India's #1 fantasy sports platform with a growing user base, has over 14 million users in South Asia. "We have been using ElastiCache for Redis with sharded configuration since its launch last year, supporting over 14 million users playing fantasy games of cricket, football, and kabaddi. With peak demand of 1.5 million requests per minute and workloads surging by 10X quickly, our platform requires scaling on-demand and without downtime. This feature enables us to scale-in and scale-out our platform to support the fluctuating game demand, and not having to over provision," said Abhishek Ravi, CIO.
"At SocialCode , our data and intelligence allow Fortune 500 marketers to know and connect with their customers by harnessing the most important digital media platforms -- like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest, Snapchat, and YouTube." Using the new online resharding feature of ElastiCache for Redis will allow us to scale out our ever-growing Audience Intelligence product as we continue to on-board brand data. The ability to perform these scaling operations without downtime is priceless!"
For the What's New announcement, see Amazon ElastiCache for Redis introduces dynamic addition and removal of shards while continuing to serve workloads.